In today’s world, millions of people all across the globe are afflicted with chronic night time breathing disorder commonly known as sleep apnea. These sleep disabilities are prominent in both men and women from all age brackets. If remains untreated, this malady leads to severe complications such as mood disorders, daytime drowsiness, fatigue and increased risk of heart strokes. Most significantly known symptoms of these slumber problems are poor mental agility, lack of concentration as well as performance deterioration.
What is sleep apnea?
Sleep apnea disorder is often categorized by pause or reduced breathing patterns during sleep. It is more prevalent amidst adults as compared to children. This disruptive sleep disorder is perceived on the basis of medical history. Certain tests and examinations are performed to confirm the diagnosis. As per the severity of the disease, the treatment can be surgical or non- surgical. Those suffering from this chronic disorder get interrupted sleep owing to inadequate oxygen levels in the blood.
Types of sleep apnea-
Central sleep apnea (CSA):
Usually premature infants and adults with congenital disorders, cardiovascular problems or cerebrovascular diseases experience central sleep apnea. At times, the breathing muscles do not receive signals from the brain to breathe. It mainly occurs due to the aforementioned diseases or a medication reaction.
Brain with normal functioning monitors the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. In case it senses the imbalance, a signal is sent to augment breathing thereby increasing the blood oxygen and decreasing the carbon dioxide. However, in patients with lung or heart diseases, carbon dioxide levels are high in general and the brain starts considering this concentration to control the breathing pattern. These irregular anomalous breathing patterns are a bigger problem when the person is asleep.
CSA can be diagnosed with overnight monitoring and comprehensive sleep study of the patient in the hospital. In infants, this sleep disorder is healed with apnea alarm whilst in adults, treatment of underlying diseases cures the slumber problems as well.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA):
In OSA, the breathing airway collapses either due to swollen turbinates or deviated septum. For this reason, the person attempts to take a deep breath but lie unsuccessful. Owing to this inability, the oxygen level in the blood drops down thereby giving rise to a negative pressure. In such circumstances, the brain recognizes the decrease in oxygen, thus releasing the signal for the body to wake up and breathe. This leads to the sudden wake ups and obstructed sleep patterns. Mandibular Advancement Device (MAD) is an oral appliance worn in the mouth to treat snoring and OSA problems. It brings forward the lower jaw which prevents impediment of the airway by tightening the upper muscles and soft tissues.
Mixed Sleep Apnea:
It occurs due to the simultaneous presence of both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Those with this disease experience loud snoring, abrupt awakenings, insomnia, unanticipated daytime sleeping, snorting sound as well as lack of focus and concentration.
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