Though enzymes take part in the biochemical reactions, but the working mechanism is highly calculative, strictly in the mathematical order. The ratio between the rate constant and the equilibrium constant is always alike. But the difference lies in the time consumed for the reaction to take place in the presence and in the absence of enzymes. The mode and direction of the order of a chemical or biochemical reaction remains the same but with enzymes as catalysts in the process, the process is quite faster.
Catalytic reaction and the energy graph
A comparative study has to be done to understand the effect of enzymes on the activation energy in any reaction. You will have to consider the graph of how the reactants are finally transformed into the end products and what the amount of the activation energy used and released is.
– When glucose reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water, the role played by the catalytic enzymes is vital.
– If the reaction takes place without the involvement of the enzymes the energy required for the reactants to reach the transition site is huge. The curve takes a sharp turn if drawn in the graph where the energy level is being calculated along the Y-axis and the coordinates for the reaction are placed in the X-axis.
– But when enzymes are induced the reactants uses very less amount of the activation energy to reach the state of transition from where the generation of end products begins. The time taken is also very less. In scientific terms it can be termed as the stability of the transitional phase in the presence of enzymes.
– The formation of the final products in the entire chemical reaction of glucose and oxygen thus takes place with the minimal use of activation energy due to the enzymatic action.
Forward and backward reaction
The enzymes behave similar in both the types of reactions. The equilibrium in the two reactions is maintained but the speed is altered. In the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, when carbon dioxide reacts with water to produce carbonic acid the concentration of carbon dioxide is quite high. This is the forward reaction process. It takes place in the body tissues.
The same reaction is reversed by the same enzyme which then produces a lower concentrated carbon dioxide. Here the carbonic acid is broken into carbon dioxide and water. This happens in our lungs from where the process of exhalation begins.
Thus without enzymes such biochemical reactions in the body would not have been possible.